The Existence of Cell-forming Substances


If one is to define a living creature as something that undergoes the life process, it then becomes obvious that Man, Animals, and Plants are living creatures. Experts estimate that living creatures first appeared, from some very simple forms, three point eight billion years ago. But, what exactly did these forms look like? What type of materials were these living creatures then made from? These are questions that have yet to be answered.


The claims that living creatures emerged from very simple forms, and that in their transformation to their present forms by way of evolution they have been highly influenced by their environment give us strong reasons to believe that living-creatures-to-be too are very closely related with whatever there is in nature. It is therefore not unlikely that living-creatures-to-be originated from everything that is found to exist in nature.


Letís now see how close living creatures are to nature.


The Carbon atoms that we learnt about when we were still at school represent the ten most abundant elements in the universe measured relative to silicon.


         Hydrogen 40,000,

        Helium 3,100,

        Oxygen 22,

        Neon 8.6,

        Nitrogen 6.6,

        Carbon 3.5,

        Silicon 1,

        Magnesium 0.91,

        Iron 0.6,

        Sulfur 0.38.



Carbon is abundant in the Sun, stars, comets, and in the atmospheres of most planets.

Carbon exists in nature in three allotropic forms: amorphous, graphite, and diamond. It is believed that there also exists the fourth form. Graphite exists in two forms: alpha and beta. The amorphous form is an assortment of Carbon atoms in a non-crystalline, irregular, glassy state, which is essentially graphite but not held in a crystalline macrostructure. It is present as a powder, and is the main constituent of substances such as charcoal, lampblack (soot) and activated Carbon.


The last three are present in abundance following the existence of living creatures. However, given the fact that Carbon has the ability to bond with hydrogen and oxygen, does this not imply that other substances similar to the three substances mentioned above could possibly come into existence long before them?


Some meteorites contain microscopic diamonds that were formed when the solar system was still a protoplanetary disk. Carbon has the ability to form very long chains of interconnecting C-C bonds. Carbon-Carbon bonds are strong, and stable. Moreover, it has an affinity for bonding with other small atoms, including other Carbon atoms, and is capable of forming multiple stable covalent bonds with such atoms. When combined with oxygen and hydrogen, Carbon can form many groups of important biological compounds including sugars, lignans, chitins, alcohols, fats, and aromatic esters, carotenoids and terpenes.With nitrogen it forms alkaloids, and with the addition of sulphur also it forms antibiotics and amino acids. With the addition of phosphorus to these other elements, it forms DNA and RNA, the chemical-code carriers of life, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the most important energy-transfer molecule in all living Cells. As a result, Carbon is known to form almost ten million different compounds; the large majority of all chemical compounds.

Inside the Cell, however, the Carbon content comes on top of the list, i.e. 50%. Carbon, if its electronsí configuration is intact, represents an element with the most stable configuration in comparison to other elementsí, and this is why it bond easily with all other elements. As such, Carbon could be said to be the principle element of life in the composition of the multifarious materials existing in the universe.


The external substances that the Carbon is said to have been attracting must have been those substances existing in the air and the ones from the earth. The air, as we know, is composed of ††††††(Source: Internet).


        Nitrogen†††††††††††††††††† 78.084%

        Oxygen†††††††††††††††††††† 20.947%

        Argon†††††††††††††††††††††† 0.934%

        Carbon Dioxide††††††† 0.033%

        Neon††††††††††††††††††††††† 0.001818%

        Helium†††††††††††††††††††† 0.000524%

        Krypton††††††††††††††††††† 0.000114%

        Methane††††††††††††††††† 0.0002%

        Hydrogen†††††††††††††††† 0.00005%

        Nitrous Oxide†††††††††† 0.00003%

        Xenon†††††††††††††††††††††† 0.0000087%

        Ozone††††††††††††††††††††† 0.000007%

        Nitrogen dioxide††††† 0.000002%

        Iodine†††††††††††††††††††††† 0.000001%, dan

        Carbon monoxide††† Trsace,

        Ammonia†††††††††††††††† Trace.




Though admittedly these are current data obtained after the existence of living creatures, they are yet not very different from those of the past. The only oxygen that is not to be found in this world is free oxygen as this is the type of oxygen that is produced only by plants.


Though it is said that the percentage of the Carbon atoms in the human body is only 18 %, these atoms are, however, present in all living creatures, which makes it quite likely that Carbon is one of the many causes of the emergence of living creatures.


Letís now just take a quick look at how close human beings are to nature. ďA man weighing 70 kg, for example, has inside his self approximately 6.7 x 1027 atoms and 60 chemical elements, among which are:

        Oxygen (65%),

        Carbon (18%),

        Hydrogen (10%),

        Nitrogen (3%),

        Calcium (1.5%),

        Phosphorus (1.0%),

        Potassium (0.35%),

        Sulfur (0.25%),

        Sodium (0.15%),

        Magnesium (0.05%),

        Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Molybdenum, Fluorine, Chlorine, Iodine,

Manganese, Cobalt, Iron (0.007%).

        Lithium, Strontium, Aluminum, Silicon, Lead, Vanadium,

Arsenic, Bromine (trace amounts).


Reference: H. A. Harper, V. W. Rodwell, P. A. Mayes, Review of Physiological Chemistry, 16th ed., Lange Medical Publications, Los Altos, California 1977.



The Cell, on the other hand, is composed of such types of atoms as derived from both the air and the earth.†††


The ones from the air include


        Carbon, 50%;

        Oxygen, 20%;

        Nitrogen, 14%;

        Hydrogen, 8%.


The ones from the earth are


        Phosphorus, 3%;

        Sulphur, 1%;

        Potassium, 1%;

        Magnesium, 0.5%;

        Calcium, 0.5%;

        Iron, 0.2%.





In the list above it can be seen that inside the Cell itself, Carbon exceeds all other substances in number.


Having gone through the list of elements present in the universe, in the air, in man, and in the Cell, it becomes obvious that Carbon represents the most dominant of all.