Chapter III

 

The Appearance of Areas Prone to External Influences

(The emergence of the DNA-to-be)

 

Although scientists have suggested that DNA originates from a single helix, as does RNA, no attempt however is made here to discuss how the single helix turn into a double helix. Included in the term DNA-to-be as meant here is the process of shifting from a single helix to a double helix.

 

Because multicellulars are originally combinations of unicellulars, the initial event that befell the unicellulars when they first emerged in this world had virtually had a very strong influence on the later development of the multicellulars. What then was it that has actually enabled the present day Cell to “carry over” their existing traits?

 

What is meant here by an area prone to external influences is that area of an object, which when exposed to continuous influence will respond accordingly, whereupon causing something unusual to happen to the object. The influence could be one by the various light waves, the various sound waves, or possibly one by the air temperature, etc.

The area that is continuously exposed to these conditions keep adapting itself, eventually causing it to adopt peculiar traits. Should such a thing happen to one part of a Cell-to-be, during the process of self-division, this peculiarity is carried over and shared, and the process of sharing goes on endlessly. We may not in any sense say that this peculiarity will be passed on to the offspring, because a unicellular creature multiplies by dividing itself, not by bearing offspring. A unicellular animal that is found to survive until today is one that has never experienced death since the time it emerged in the world. By implication, a unicellular living creature that exists today is one whose life process has never ended since billions of years ago. It multiplies only by dividing itself and then by way of evolution it changes its form.

If the Cells are in multicellular bonds, as they do in human beings, animals, or plants, these groups of Cells may experience death. When this happens, those Cells now combined to form multicellulars will also die. But the gamete Cell of one multicellular creature will then combine with the gamete Cell  of  another multicellular creature to develop a new multicellular creature, which will share all the conditions and the bodily material of the gamete Cells.

This is one reason why those parts of the body that had been exposed to external influences and had then adapted themselves to those influences have still had the effects on them till today, as these effects are constantly carried over and shared out each time the Cell divides. This happens to not only unicellulars (single-celled creatures) but also multicellulars (creatures that are composed of many Cells like us). In needs to be noted down here that, according to scientists, during the Proterozoikum period billions of years ago, one part of the unicellulars developed into multicellulars, while the other part remained unicellular—similar to that we have today.

 

Let’s now re-examine the condition of some parts of the body inside the Carbon granule or Carbon particle, which is considered to be the Cell-to-be exposed to external influences.

  As we all know, in a spherical solid object, either hard or soft, there must always be a centre of mass (here in illustration 1, marked C); a space between the centre and the outer skin (marked B); and the outer layer or the outer skin itself (marked A). Thus,  when a spherical object is exposed to external influences, it is the outer skin (A) that will directly receive the influences, which are then transmitted to the inner area (B) and the centre (C). Now if we envisage that in the inner part of the spherical object there is the centre (C) and the space between the outer skin and the centre (B), it then goes without saying that the centre must assume a very special position. All external influences received by the outer skin (A) will be transmitted to the centre, which in turn will receive the influences at relatively the same time. If the external influences are able to get to and well received by the centre, one may then perhaps assume that the centre is able to receive all that is projected onto it. The centre is that part that indirectly receives influences from all directions. The centre may indeed not receive the same external influences as the outer skin, both qualitatively and quantitatively, yet the influences it receives are of a greater variety. (See illustration 3, 4 and 5).

 

Illustration 2 attempts to further clarify the process by which the external influences enter the Carbon granule.

If we are to quantify the influences in terms of units of influences, we may perhaps assign a score of 9 to the external influences at the point of entry. These influences will however grow fainter and fainter, the deeper they go into the Carbon granule. In Illustration 2, the bundle of influences are shown to appear in gradations, in descending order, such that as soon as they get to the centre, the influences are well estimated to be around 5 units. Now, what if there were five bundles of influences, each entering from a different direction, as is shown in illustration 3? The units of influences would certainly sum up to 25 units (of a variety of influences), all leading towards the centre.

  Illustration 3 shows how the centre grows darker due to the variety of influences. Now, what if there were 12 bundles as in Illustration 4?  As can be seen in the illustration, the central part gets darker—an indication that it is getting more and more influences. Now what if the bundles of influences are as many as is shown in illustration 5. Naturally, if such a condition persisted for years, peculiarities would slowly but surely begin to show themselves up.

The explanations and the illustrations above would become even more obvious if all the influences worked simultaneously from every direction, because only then would it be easier for us to see only the effects.

 

Let’s now clarify what we mean by the explanations above. What we mean by Illustrations 2, 3, 4, and 5 is that the darker the shadow grows, the greater are the influences that the Carbon body is exposed to—the influences could be so great that they would even leave their traces inside the Carbon body. These traces may later make it easier for external influences to work even deeper. This is similar to a river which has to encounter lots of barriers and obstacles when making its way to the sea for the first time. It’s only after some time when all those obstacles and barriers are gradually eroded that things will begin to go smooth for the river. Although the river water may at one time go dry, it will still be easier for later flows of water to get to the sea by following the “traces” left earlier. Similarly is the case with the traces impressed on the centre as exemplified above. The river water can here be said to be analogous to the incoming rays of the sunlight, while the traces left may be said to be comparable to the compounds in the Carbon body, so positioned as a result of the influences of the rays of the sunlight.

 

There is also another uniqueness of the centre. When the two opposite sides of the ball are tapped simultaneously, transversal or longitudinal waves are soon formed inside the ball. These waves will move to the centre, some mutually strengthening and some mutually destructing. Not only this: inside the ball, spherical waves moving centre-wise are also formed.

 

Thus inside the body of the Carbon granule, as is the case with the solid sphere, there also exists the central part which receives a variety of influences from all directions. It is as if everything were projected onto that part. More than that, the inner part of the Carbon granule, right from the skin through to the centre, will develop special features, which will then become the special characteristics of the Cell-to-be—characteristics made distinctive by the external influences and which are constantly shared by the divided parts of the Cell-to-be, as though they are DNAs-to-be.

 

The prolonged process of the formation of the various compounds between the banks of the Carbon and its central part serves to strengthen the bond between the core (C), the outer part of the core (B) and the skin (A). This is similar to the electric current used in welding. When electric current is let to flow through the four balls, which are not at all welded together, the balls will still stick together. (Illustration 6a, 6b). Here, by heaving electric current flow on their surfaces, those parts of the surfaces that touch each other naturally get heated that they eventually melt, thus causing the four metal balls to get themselves stuck to each other. What this means is that if in a ball of such a size consisting of such a lot of molecules, the effect can be at such quantity, there certainly has to be some degree of effects in smaller clusters of molecules with smaller amount of electric current. Yet, events as such, if they repeat themselves for millions of times, can cause these miniscule effects to become obvious.  This is just a simple example meant to ease understanding.

Such a condition as this will later result in another amazing condition, i.e. the emergence of Cells-to-be bearing all the traits of the past. How could such a thing possibly occur?

Since every Cell-to-be divides itself, all Cells-to-be must then follow suit. Following this division, and soon after the divided parts have shared all the pre-division traits they will then work their way towards recovery—the process is perhaps comparable to Anabolism, i.e. the event that takes place when the Cell tries to reconsolidate the compounds that it has shared out with its counterparts at the time it divides. Such carrying over and sharing of traits will continue for as long as this division continues.

 

n.b.

Although we are fully aware that unicellulars multiply by dividing themselves, not by giving birth to offspring, we are yet obliged to use words commonly used for multicellular creatures simply to ease understanding, especially when discussing them from a particular point of view. Language limitations are also another reason for our choice of those words. We have in this book intentionally enclosed these words with quotation marks to make them more distinguishable.

 

Let’s now see what DNAs and Chromosomes are from a general point of view.

Chromosomes are DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) wrapped around proteins to form an X-shaped structure during metaphase; they are subdivided into elements known as genes.

It is the genetic code that contains all the information needed to build and maintain an organism. It is thus obvious then that a DNA can, in simple terms, be said to be bearing the characteristics of its “forebears”. Although in fact development of such characteristics was originally an outcome of nature’s influence. But how could that be?

 

When an object or something is exposed to something else and it responds to that something else, the object is then said to behave in such and such a way towards that something else. When a piece of iron placed closed to a magnet bar gets attached to the magnet bar, it is said that either the iron is adhesive to the magnet bar or the magnet bar has the power to attract the iron or to stick to it. Though it is also quite possible that the piece of iron, after being exposed to the influence of the magnet for so long a time, may have altered its characteristics, thereby turning itself into magnet. The same thing holds for the compounds inside the Carbon body that has for so long a time been exposed to external influences: it will invariably be responsive to and affected by the external influences, the most dominant of which is the influence of the sun. As it turns out, inside the rays of the sunlight itself there exists also abundant of something else.

Among these are the Cosmic Ray, Gamma Ray, X-Ray, Ultraviolet (A,B,C), Visible range or light spans 400 to 700 nm, Infrared Ray (A,B,C), Microwave, Longwave, Electrical, etc. (from the Internet).

 

               One of the consequences is that there occurs a change in the compounds inside Carbon body. The greater the heat transmitted by the rays of the sunlight, or by whatever it may be, to an object, the greater the influence it has on the object.

 

It is strongly believed that in the Carbon body, which has so much adsorbed the multifarious sensitive substances, there will appear peculiarities, the effects of which may well penetrate deep inside the Carbon body.

 

Being relatively round, the Carbon body can roll about easily, thereby enabling every part of its surface to be exposed to the influences of the rays of the sunlight. As there are so many Cells-to-be scattered on the surface of the earth, naturally the substances the Carbon body absorbs and the compounds these substances form vary greatly. Similarly is the case with the groups of substances whose sensitivity are different from each other—they too vary greatly. For example, a Cell-to-be that is supposed to become a human being later may have 23 groups of sensitive substances, a cats may have 19, a gold fish 47, a potato 24, and a mushroom 2.

 

Now, let’s suppose that this sensitive area is the DNA-to-be. With this area being exposed to external influences, it thus becomes natural that the influences should spread to the surrounding areas. If, for example, of all the compounds in the body of an active Carbon, one compound on the surface turns out to be sensitive to the rays of the sunlight, there is then no room to doubt that this one sensitive compound may affect other molecules close to or inside it. This is particularly true if it so happens that inside it there are some sensitive molecules: a certain bond is instantly established and this will penetrate deep inside the centre of the Carbon body, as though mutually bonding, like the row of balls flowed by electric current.

 

Again an illustration is given below to show how the external influences work inside, to such a depth, that they eventually cause the central part to be so crowded with the “traces” of the various external influences. If the external influences,  say,  receive 9 units,  these influences will then get weaker and weaker, the deeper they go into the Carbon body—say, 5 units.

Just imagine how large the external influences the central part would receive from all directions, if the whole outer surface were to receive that much of influence. The figure could possibly amount to 100 or 1,000 times of the area of the surface.

 


 

With the outer part receiving external influences and with the accumulation of external influences at the central part, relations may yet occur due to the abundance of these influences, even though at the centre and the area located between the centre and that part prone to external influences there may not exist many sensitive compounds. (see dark area around the arrow in Illustration 1 now enlarged). It is this that has made the area that spans from the outer part to the centre become so special. The explanations above, however, holds good only if the influences work simultaneously from all directions, thereby bringing about such consequence. Certainly these statements are valid only if the influences received from other directions leave their traces, as it is these traces that will enable us to make our calculation. If the “traces” are already there, they will naturally make it easier for the influences to display their impacts. This is similar to the dried up river bed discussed earlier. Illustration 2 shows 3 sensitive stains which, having been exposed to external influences, have left traces until deep inside.

 

Visualized in a three-dimensional form, as seen from the side, it is assumed here that there are three areas of which the compounds are sensitive to external influences. Two sensitive areas are seen to face forward, whereas the other one (drawn in the form of a shadow) is inside the Carbon body, in back of it. All three are connected by a broken black line leading towards the centre. The white color at the top of the ball, which fades as it goes downward, maps how the external influences work from the top to the bottom. In illustration 2a, the upper part of the Carbon body is exposed to external influences such that the various sensitive compounds spread over that area may display their reactions. In the illustration the compounds are depicted as round black stains, while the white area which gradually fades at the bank is the area which, though affected by the external influences, does not show any reactions as do the three influence-prone areas.

Illustration 3 is supposed to be a cross-section of the Carbon body, inside which there exist multifarious compounds. Though, as indicated by the variety of dots, there are abundance of compounds in the Carbon body, there are however still a lot more of compounds in it that are prone to external influences and that will later turn into DNA-to-be.

 

In their experiments, scientists have been able to prove that Nucleotides, when exposed to UV rays and electric current, can turn into a substance very much like the one found in DNAs and RNAs.

During the first billion years on earth, there was little free oxygen and no ozone to absorb UV radiation from the sun. Yet, simple organic molecules were formed under such harsh conditions. Laboratory experiments simulating the primitive earth have confirmed that organic molecules could have been formed. When gases such as CO2, CH4, NH3, and H2 were heated with water and energized by electrical discharge or by UV radiation, they reacted and formed small organic molecules. More importantly, the organic molecules that were crucial to life (amino acids, nucleotides, sugars, and fatty acids) were also generated. http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/on_the_origin_of_cells.html

 

 

If these scientists are right about that, it could then be presumed that inside the ACPs, which themselves were sensitive to external influences, there must have been Nucleotide, which was than composed of molecules of bases, sugar, and phosphate. While in its preliminary stage it must have been so simple, not only in its shape but also in its composition, that it almost resembles the single-stranded RNA.

 

If scientists are to say that DNA originates from Nucleotides, what than do they have to say about it if inside the ACP there exist plenty of Nucleotides? We have till now been indeed left which much confusion as to how DNAs-to-be had managed to get them selves accumulated in the Cell haven’t we?   

Is it not possible that the ACP could have also served as such a container? It is the answer to this question that could perhaps help further explain about the emergence of the Cell.

 

As already explained earlier, this book makes no attempt to explain about the chemical changes. Rather, it emphasizes more on the natural changes of the cell-to-be in its evolutionary journey towards becoming a cell.

Let’s imagine that the dark-colored stains are areas in the Carbon body (ACP) that are affected by external influences and have traces on them. The black arrow shows the influence of the rays of the sunlight, e.g. the ones that influence the upper part of the Carbon body (ACP) to the extent that they enter its inner part. With the different colors blended inside, the rays that enter deep inside the ACP look as if they were jumping from one trace to another, which makes it easy for them to get to the centre. Consequently there occurs a new flow of external influences working its ways into the inside of the ACP and leaving traces in it. What happens next is a compilation of various influence-prone-compounds on the new path.

 

Is it possible that the existing electrical influence of the rays of the sunlight has affected the molecules and the compounds the way electricity affects the iron balls through which it flows? If we are to assume areas A, W, and X (Illustration 4) to be DNA-to-be, would it then be possible for us to say that the presence of DNA in Chromosomes, which are known to convey electricity, has something to do with all this? Is it possible that the electromagnetic waves, transmissions of the electrical field and the magnetic field of the sun, have something to do with all this?  Illustration 4 maps one part of the ACP whose upper compounds are exposed to external influences to the extent that these influences penetrate the centre. It seems as if there is an imaginary bond all over that part that connects A, W, X.

  If we are to accept the idea that it is those areas that are prone to influences that represent the beginning of the emergence of DNA-to-be, how then are we to explain the complexities of its shape and existence as we see it today?

  In nature, even a very slight peculiarity may in the long run lead to the emergence of entities of limitless variations. It is as if the development of compounds in living creatures worked in such a progression comparable to that of Pascal’s triangle, which, as one can see in illustration 5, shows that the lower down the triangle the compounds are, the more do the molecules increase, in both numbers and types, and thus the greater is the variety of new compounds being produced. It is from these new compounds that new Cells, new tissues, new organs, and eventually new varieties of living creatures, come to emerge. Needless to say then, living creatures will in the long run be getting more and more complex, both in terms of their bodily structures and their types. Similarly is the case with the currently existing DNA: they must have originated from a very simple form. It is quite likely that they had begun as RNAs-to-be, appearing in a form that were then very simple and by far from perfect.

DNA must have originated from something that had been exposed to external influences and that had responded to those external influences in such a way that changes occurred to it as a result of its trying to adjust itself to the influences. Inside it too there were molecules similar, though simpler in form, to the ones to be found in today’s DNA. The molecules of the Nucleotides must have already been there before it started to develop.

 

  On the left of this page is a picture (taken from one of the sites on the Internet) of DNA inside the Chromosome. (Illustration 6).

 

It is perhaps necessary to add here that it is not only those molecules which later turn themselves into DNA that are influenced by external conditions, i.e. the rays of the sunlight in particular. In fact, every molecule to be found in the whole ACP is also influenced. In the discussions above, greater emphasis, however, is given to certain molecules, as DNA-to-be, especially the ones that are highly sensitive to external influences. But it is also not unlikely that all molecules are relatively equally influenced by external conditions, which is why they are apt to set up strong bonds among themselves in the whole ACP.

Later, at the time the division occurs, every molecule in the ACP will also divide and separate the way the compounds of the DNA-to-be do—though for these compounds of the DNA-to-be that are formed in the ACP, there develop distinctive features during  the process of its evolution.

Certainly it should be kept in mind here that originally the shape of the DNA was not at all like what it is today. When it first emerged, the DNA looked so simple that it almost resembled the RNA.

 

----------