The Impacts of the External Influences Being Passed on to Its “Descendants”
It is our common knowledge that a cell consists of a combination of molecules, which, needless to say, as then extremely simple in form. Some scientists believe that it was DNA and RNA that were first formed from these Nucleotides molecules. Thus it is natural if these molecules had appeared as Genome whose existence was then passed on to its descendants. How could such a thing happen?
Because the cell-to-be was previously a combination of simple molecules, let’s take a look at it from the standpoint of simple physics for explanations on how the cell had been able to pass on its characteristics to its descendants in such a way that these descendants were able to acquire all the features that “their mother” has.
Let’s begin from the very simple shape of the combined homogenous molecules, say spherical like a ball. Ball A can here be analogized to the combination of molecules inside the cell, whereas ball B to the Genome inside the cell.
What is being discussed here is the limitations in terms of the elasticity of objects as viewed from a simple standpoint.
First let’s take a look at nature in its natural condition as portrayed by ball A, which is solid, elastic, homogenous, 4 cm in diameter, and in which there is a smaller ball (B), 1 cm in diameter. Ball B is inside and, at the same time, part of ball A.
To ease matters, let’s just assume that the centre of ball A is so positioned that it lies exactly on the centre of ball B. Further, let’s also assume that there is a strong bond between ball B and the whole contents of ball A—in the illustrations the strong bond is represented by the diameters connecting ball B with the whole contents of ball A.
Given such conditions of ball A and ball B, the exertion of pressure of any degree of intensity on ball A from the sides may result in its effects being totally spread all over not only ball A itself, but also ball B. Take ball A in illustration 1, for example: if ball A with its horizontal diameter of 4 cm in length is so pressed that the horizontal diameter becomes only 2cm (as shown in illustration 2) the diameter of ball B which was originally 1 cm then becomes only ½ cm. Of course, this may happen only if conditions inside both balls are totally alike.
If, for instance, after pressing the ball, we then relieve it of the pressure we exert on it and leave it untouched so as to give it the chance to regain its original condition, free of any degree of tension, we will soon notice that the horizontal diameter is now shorter, say by 4 Angstrom or 4/10,000,000,000 meter (illustration 3).
By way of simple calculation, the diameter of B becomes 1 Angstrom shorter. This is the new measurement taken under conditions when all the molecules inside the ball are free of any degree of tension as it attempts to regain its original shape.
Now, what would possibly happen if the pressure exerted on the ball continues for years, without an instant of relief( as exemplified in illustration 2).
If the pressure in the ball are released 5 years later, it is likely that the ball will regain its original shape, though its diameter may then be only 3 cm (illustration 4 b), and it will remain so even if it is left alone for months in order to maximally ensure the stability of the shape it has managed regained. Under a ten-year continuous pressure, the ball may return to its original shape with a diameter of only 2.5 cm when the pressure is released. Correspondingly, a 20-year continuous pressure may result in its having a diameter of only a few mm or perhaps 2 cm when it regains its original shape after it is relieved of the pressure. (Illustration 4c)
Now, what if, after it becomes something that almost resembles what is depicted in illustration 5a, the ball undergoes instant, extreme pressure, similar to the one it initially experienced, though now from a different direction? (Illustration 5b). Needless to say, if its elasticity still permits it to perform some more changes, it will then manifest\ itself in such a condition as shown in 5b. If such pressure occurs only a few minutes or in a very short span of time, it will then show itself to be in a condition as occurring in illustration 1, where the pressure exerted on it comes from the sides—the only difference this time is that the pressure comes from the top. That is why it will re-assume that condition as in 5a, where any reduction that occurs—though only a few Angstrom and invisible—is but a result of the limitation in its elasticity. The vertical line will be reduced by only a few Angstrom (illustration 5c). It is because of the fact that the reduction is invisible that we are inclined to say that the ball is at that very moment free from the influence of any pressure.
In the above discussions concerning the ball, we are visualizing that ball A is the body of the cell, inside which ball B resides as if it were the Genome containing DNA, which is then inside the chromosome. If the genome and ball B are exactly alike, it should then be understandable why, after years of being subjected to external pressure, the genome should be in such a condition similar to that of ball B. However, since its homogenity is not at like like that of the ball, the external pressure it receives, therefore, is not as simple as that received by the ball.
Let’s take a look at illustration 6 below.
Illustration 6a shows the condition of the genome as exemplified by the ball with its homogenous contents in illustration 1. This makes it possible for the various strong influences received by the outer part of the ball to be transmitted to ball B inside it.
Illustration 6b shows the ball being in a condition where its inner part lack homogeinity such that only certain parts of the external influences can be transmitted innerwise.
Illustration 6C shows only a particular section of the outer part (see arrow) building such relationship that enables the inner part to be influenced.
Illustration 6D shows that inner part that is able to receive external influences, buried deep inside the body of ball A such that only certain influences can reach it. When such a thing happens to a cell, and if the cell then divides, it is only the genotype influences that will enable the characteristics of the mother to be passed on to the descendants—something that the fenotype influences are just not able to do.
This group of multicellulars could also be visualized as the trillions of cells inside it as they receive external influences from inside the body; which are transmitted to the gamet cell residing at a particular location. Below is a simple illustration, which like illustration 7, depicts the external influences (represented by the red arrow) being transmitted to the gamet cell (blue arrow).
All the explanations above are only an attempt to visualize how those external forces that influence certain parts have a strong bond with the whole body. What this further means is that in cases where there occurs a division, these influences will also be transmitted to the descendant.
With the experiments conducted with a ball containing homogenous matter as the point of departure, we can now imagine what would probably happen if the ball were in a condition similar to that of a cell, which can divide itself in such a way that the descendant inherit all those substances present in its mother. Later, however, this homogeneity will gradually change into something as shown in illustration 6b, 6c, which following further change will turn into something as shown in illustration 6d, and eventually resemble the condition of the present day cell. This concerns not only the homogeneity but also many other things such those parts of the cell that are sensitive to external influences, the route taken to enable the external influences to reach the genome material, etc.
As for the different types of mutation that is know to have an impact on the “descendant”, all these depend on how strong the influence is, and to what extent the concerned part is exposed the influence, etc,