Chapter V

 

Citations of the Various Evolutionary Events

 

Evolution developing from Molecular Inertia

 

The Development of the Tail in Animals.

 

Although that evolution is unarguably a tortuous process, for the purpose of simplifying matters and  providing a clearer view as to how the laws of nature in the process, based all his analyses and discourses on the supposition that evolution is a linear process.

What this means is that, since the beginning of the formation of the cell and even until today, there have been no diversions during the process of change from one species into another. The diversions meant here is the change from what were once land creatures into marine creatures, and vice versa. The parts of the body that had once emerged as a result of the influence of the environment will later disappear again due to the influence of a different environment generations later, after millions of years. The volume of the body or parts of the body which initially expands then contracts, etc.etc.

         

            The existence of all living creatures in nature is influenced by two conditions i.e. conditions external to their body and conditions internal to their body, both of which work simultaneously. Here, an attempt is made to elaborate some of the features of these conditions, particularly the ones that may make interesting topics of discussion. These conditions, though they may perhaps be just a common issue to some people, may yet be something of great interests to scientists in search for the answers to the question, “What is it that has caused animals to have tails?”

 

            Indeed, there are some who are of the opinion that the tail of an animal has come to emerge for the sole purpose of enabling it to keep its body in balance.  What if we take a look at the pictures below, all taken from the internet?

 


Here it can be seen that the movements of the living creatures are encumbered by their tails, particular at a time when they attempt to avoid predators. We may thus not say in any sense that the very long tails of these creatures function as a balance-keeper; rather, what we may say is that these tails of theirs had come to emerge only by dint of the presence of the molecular inertia of the material from which their tails had been formed. Even if they had been in the transition period, such molecular inertia could still affect such evolution of the body shape from one that was snake-like to one that was lizard-like, or vice versa.

 

            Here we are going to deal with only the presence of proofs of evolution in living creatures from the aspect of molecular changes in measurements of Angstrom. 

 

The development of the tail of an animal is conceivably a result of the molecular inertia of the molecules of its body. At the time the animal moves its body forward, all the molecules of its Cells look as if they were left behind. In other words, the body grows longer, though this elongation could be as miniscule as only 1 Angstrom.

This is because of the molecular inertia of its bodily matter, particularly the one at its tail.

 

Molecular movement caused by the molecular inertia of an animal’s tail.

 

          Illustration 1 shows a spherical iron ball placed on a thick piece of paper pad. If the paper pad is tugged in the direction as shown by the grey arrow, the ball, due is, due to its molecular inertia, seen to shift towards the vertical line “a” (illustration 2).

           

            A similar occurrence can also been seen in an animal, e.g. a lizard, each time it makes a sudden forward movement. The paper pad, here exemplifies the outer part or the skin of he lizard while the iron ball the molecules in its body.     

           

            In an animal, however, while the multifarious molecules that make up its bodily cells will, due to their molecular inertia, shift backward simultaneously with its sudden forward movement, these molecules will, however, because of their flexibility, return to their original position. (illustration 1)

 

            Illustrations 1, 2, and 3 depict the molecules at a particular location at the tail, while illustration 5 depicts the molecules at that part of the tail extending from the stump to the tip.

 

One question yet remains: Do these molecules inside its cells have the ability to return to its original position to a degree of precision of Angstrom? The answer is definitely “No!”. Such is the answer, the new position they will take is one as shown in illustration 3, where the iron ball is now seen to be at “c”. It is the distance between “b” and “c”, represented by the letter x, that will later affect the elongation of the tail as well as the other organs of the animal. In addition to this, in almost all mobile living creatures, the jerky movement they inevitably make when they start to move exceeds the one they make when they stop.

 

However, whether a tail will emerge or not, and whether the molecules will elongate or not, it all depends on a number of factors. Among these—apart from such factor as the bond between the molecules of the tail—is one that concerns the movement that particular species of animals habitually make in its day-to-day life.

 

Now, if it is supposed that at each movement or jump the x is only 1 Angstrom, just imagine how significant the figure could be after millions of years of evolution. The x here is but a result of one jump, yet if we are to assume that the total elongation that occurs a day is 1 Angstrom, what we have then is the following calculation: As 1 mm is equal to 10,000,000 Angstrom, a shift of just 1 Angstrom a day can result in x reaching 365 Angstrom a year. As such, after 100,000,000 years of evolution, the x may reach 36,500,000,000 Angstrom, which is equal to 3.650 mm or 3,65 meters.

 

            On the left of this page is an illustration supposedly portraying the molecules inside the cells of the animal’s tail—or it could also be envisioned that they are a row of cells of the animal’s tail.

 

Illustration 5 maps how the molecules of an animal’s tail, which originally are in a position as shown by A, later take a position as depicted by B when the animal moves forward. Consequently there occur spaces between these molecules, though at irregular intervals. As soon as the animal stops its forward movement, these molecules return to their original position, though not quite precisely at their original spots.

 

In the illustration, the row of molecules, which originally resembles that as shown in 5A, becomes like what is shown in B—this a result of the animal’s forward movement. Later, as soon as the animal stops, the row of molecules attempts to regain its 5A position; nevertheless, due to the limitedness of its elasticity, the best it could achieve is a position as shown in 5C.

 

 There thus occurs a discrepancy in length between the row of molecules in 5A and that in 5C, though by only 1 Angstrom. Later, as soon as its condition becomes stable, 5C becomes the new 5A, which is longer by one Angstrom that the original 5A. Such elongation occurs continuously and repeatedly, is passed on to its descendants, and will become obvious only after hundreds of thousands of generations have passed.

 

Please keep in mind that the above calculation is based on the assumption that such jump occurs only once a day and that the distance covered at each jump is 1 Angstrom. Now, what if it is assumed that 100 Angstrom of such jump occur a day. Needless to say, the evolutionary process is accelerated. 

 

            Though this is but a rough calculation, the figures here are yet not by far different from what they truly are. Here the molecules and the cells are intentionally made to appear more than they actually are and to look simple solely to ease the readers in their attempt to understand what this evolutionary journey is all about.

 

No matter where these molecules are in—be they in the bones, the muscles, the skin—they will all be affected when the animal moves forward.

 

            During the elongation of its tail, empty spaces are formed between the molecules and the cells of the tail, which makes it possible for more molecules and cells to be formed to fill in the space, by way of division. This eventually entails in the elongation of the tail. And as far as living creatures are concerned, such elongation is something that they must be able to pass on to their descendants.

This, of course, is no different from the other evolutionary journey, i.e. the one subjected to mutation.

           

            Because this is something that concerns more about the internal factors of living creatures, its further development could have something to do with Homeobox in Gene, the one related with Hox gene.

This is a possibility that scientists are expected to re-examine.

 

Were it to turn out that there would simply be no way for any molecular changes to be passed on to the descendants, then any attempt to explain about molecular inertia would certainly be of no use and irrelevant to the development of evolution.

 

The evolutionary changes due to molecular inertia took place not only at the tail but also at all other parts of the body of a living creature. The symmetrical body shape of a living creature may perhaps serve as one of the many amazing examples of this.

 

Conclusion

          Those who believe that evolution does occur must certainly believe that before living creatures have such forms as they do today, they must, at the beginning, have been very simple in form. These believers of evolution must certainly believe that before an animal got its tail elongated to such a length as it is today, such elongation must have occurred in phases—initially emerging as an animal without a tail, it then began to develop a short tail, which then grew longer and longer to the extent that it turns into what it is today. What is extremely dominant in the whole process of such elongation is the roles that the laws of nature play.

          If we were to adopt the idea that such limitations in elasticity of a living creature can never be passed on to its descendants, then this would means that we believe that the position of the molecules of the tail would return to its 5A condition.

          This would then bring rise to some crucial questions: “Where has that energy needed to create the distance (x) gone? Where does it get the energy it needs to return from its position as in 5C to its position as in 5A?

            A look at long-tailed animals of today, it can be said for certain that the elongation of their tails have been caused by both mass inertia and limitations in elasticity, and that any change leading to such elongation will necessarily be passed on to the descendants.

            Should you disapprove of whatever is proposed in this article, we would certainly welcome any other opinion you have concerning the elongation of the tail of an animal during evolution.

 

 

Evolution Caused by the Forward Movement of Living Creatures

 

As we all know, living creatures appear in a variety of forms: some are irregularly shaped, some radially symmetrical, and others bilaterally symmetrical.

Many flowers and plants are radially symmetrical, whereas animals in general, including human beings, are bilaterally symmetrical, meaning that those front parts (see front-view illustration) of theirs will really match up exactly when folded in half.

 

As it is commonly believed nothing could have possibly occurred in nature for no reason, it must therefore make sense enough for us to say that there must have been a reason behind all these bilaterally symmetrical shapes of animals and human beings. While it is indeed true that such bilaterally symmetrical forms are to be found also in the leaves of a variety of plants, yet animals and human beings—all being forward moving creatures—have their own reasons for adopting such bilaterally symmetrical forms. Let’s go through the explanation that follows:

            It is thus not without reason that all forward-moving living creatures with a symmetrical axis parallel to their forward movement have such bilaterally symmetrical forms.

           

             For the common people, who in general tend to take these matters concerning their bodily shape simply for granted, such changes would naturally not seem to be something unusual and worth questioning. Scientists, on the other hand, being the kind of people who always hold that everything exists in nature for a reason, should certainly be in a position to readily maintain that there must be a reason underlying the symmetrical shape of their bodies.

                         

            The fact that most forward-moving living creatures (either man or animals) have a bilaterally symmetrical form with the axes parallel to their forward movement is by no means accidental. One can attribute such orderliness of things to the various laws that God has imposed upon the whole content of the universe as His eternal will.

 

            Let’s say that we are in a position to accept the view of the evolutionists that man’s body was originally very simple in form. Now, with man’s body in such a form as it currently is, there must be some explanations as to how our bodies have managed to maintain its symmetrical form until today. Could it be that the process of change it undergoes is very much in common with the natural occurrences to be described below?

           


            Let’s now take a look at simulation of a condition in nature that have caused a forward-moving living creature to have its symmetrical form.

 


           

An empty glass ball is filled with 100 grains of peanuts, 100 grains of corn, and 100 grains of rice (illustration 3a). The glass ball is then tapped on a flat surface and moved forward, the way a forward-moving living creature would when in motion. After some time, if we were to split the glass ball from back to front into halves, we would instantly see that the number of grains of peanuts, corn, and rice in each half of the glass tends to be the same. (See illustration 3b).

           

            In the illustration above it can be seen that the grains are split up into almost equal numbers: 50 grains of peanuts, 49 grains of corn, and 52 grains of rice in one half of the glass box, and 50 grains of peanuts, 51 grains of corn, and 48 grains of rice in the other half.

          The green broken line indicates the forward movement of a living creature. It is also this very line that represents the axis of its bilaterally symmetrical shape—the only line that divides the creature into two bilaterally symmetrical parts. No other lines could be drawn that would divide the creature bilaterally symmetrical. What this implies is that there is a connection between the forward movement of a living creature, which is here represented by the green broken line, and its bilaterally symmetrical shape. (Illustration 3b).

           

            Is it possible that the transformation of the originally asymmetrical form of the human body into one that is currently symmetrical is a result of such phenomenon? 

            Although in the example above the glass ball is moved quickly and in short hops (to speed up the results of what is purported to be a process of evolution), the movement however does not differ much from that of a human being.

           

            The bodily substances may indeed shift by only a miniscule measure of Angstrom each time the body moves, yet such a movement may, billions of years later, cause the human body to become symmetrical, as it is today. It needs to be emphasized here that all this can happen only if the condition of the body makes it possible for such a change; otherwise, the separation will not be symmetrical, as can be seen in a number of internal organs of both man and animals. The heart of a human being, for example, lies more towards the left, while the pancreas and the large intestines are not symmetrical.

           

            The effects of such bilaterally symmetrical forms as caused by the earth’s gravity is evident in the fact that as one grows older, the shorter one becomes—a result not only of Osteoporosis but, more than that, also of the pressure exerted on one’s body while one is in motion. (Illustration 4).

            In illustration 4, though man does not move the way a frog does—as represented here by the glass ball—yet, as far as it concerns the division of their bodily molecules (in the course of acquiring their bilaterally symmetrical shape), little difference could be seen between them. The explanation to this is that each time the man /the frog stamps his/its left foot on the ground, all of  his bodily molecules move to the left. Similarly, each time he/it stamps his/its right foot on the ground, all of his/its bodily molecules move to the right.

           

            Other explanations related with the bilaterally symmetrical shapes of forward moving living creatures.

 

Let’s now do a little bit of experiment:

 

In Illustration 5a, a handful of sand is piled in the form of a cone on a piece of thick paper. Now, if  the paper together with the pile of sand is dropped vertically from a low height of, say, 5cm, the sand is seen to scatter in all directions, away from the red dot x.(see lower part of Illustration 5a).

As the red dot x is the spot that receives the strongest pressure when the sand is dropped straight from above, the particles of sand spread in the direction of the red arrows. (See illustrations below, as seen from the top). The spread of the sand resembles the radii of a circle with x as its centre.


            In illustration 5b, the pile of sand together with its paper pad is dropped also at a low height, though not exactly vertically down but rather in a slanting position (as shown by the blue arrow). Here, the particles of sand that spread are seen to form an ellipse with the red dot y as the centre receiving the strongest pressure from the top of the pile. The spread is, however, seen to shift somewhat forward. The ellipse formed is not quite one that is perfectly elliptical; rather it looks more like the cross-section of an egg. The back part looks somewhat blunt, while the front part looks somewhat pointed. Explanation for illustration 5b: as a result of the forward movement made simultaneously with the dropping of the pile of sand, the backward spread of the sand is reduced, consequently causing the sand scattering at the back to form a rather blunt shape—very much unlike the back part of the sand in 5a, which is seen to scatter within equal radius, apparently forming a circle. The front part of 5b (see illustration 5b-the lower one), however, becomes somewhat pointed due to the forward force of the whole pile of sand and the pad, consequently causing the frontal-most part of the sand to be thrown further forward.

           

            Now, what can we learn from this experiment? Needless to say, as evident in the way the sand got scattered, it is obviously the forward movement of living creatures as portrayed in Illustration 5b that has resulted in their being bilaterally symmetrical. The left and the right sides of the forward movement—represented by the green arrows--are bilaterally symmetrical.

 

            Thus, even to the molecules of our body, such laws of nature make no exceptions. Each time a living creature moves forward, all of the molecules of its body must move too. And though it is quite possible that the molecules may move in a scale of only a few Armstrong, yet after hundreds of millions of years, the effect can be very significant.

           

            This again confirms that the bilaterally symmetrical shapes that animals and human-beings have are by no means a coincidence. There are reasons which are extremely complex and interlocking underlying such phenomena. Yet, their complexity, there is just no reason for us not to have at least a general idea of where and how such bilaterally symmetrical shapes have come into being.

           

            In the evolution of a forward-moving living creature there occurs some movements that may result in the combination of similar functions whereby the body tissues are formed, and those that tend to work towards the formation of the symmetrical parts of the body. As both take place simultaneously, it is therefore natural for those body parts with similar functions to have a symmetrical form.

 

The eyes, ears, arms, legs, etc. can all serve as proofs supportive of this hypothesis on evolution. Should the explanation above still fail to convince the readers, further discussion using figures could perhaps help clarify the point. Now that one Armstrong is equal to one-tenth of a billion meter, a living creature, particularly a human being, will obviously have to undergo a span of change of 10,000,000,000 Angstrom for every meter of change-of-form he achieves.

           

According to scientists, life first emerged 3.8 billion years ago. Let’s just assume that those man-forming cells-to-be first became multicellulars 1 billion years ago, and that they have since then been able to move and have begun to develop symmetrical parts. Calculated as of the time when multicellulars began to emerge, because human-beings are made-up of multicellulars.

           

            What this implies is that for the one-meter change he manages to achieve within a period of time extending from the time he first existed to the present time, he would have to undergo a change of (10,000,000,000 divided by 1,000,000,000) or approximately 10 Angstrom every year. Ten Armstrong would, however, seem to be too small a figure if we were to contemplate the illustration given in this page. Yet, it can clearly be seen that every time a living creature moves, all his body parts shift. For example, when he moves his right feet and then his left feet forward, the rest of his body parts move to the right and then to the left. (Illustration 4A and 4B). To be able to get back to their original position, these body parts have to be very flexible—something which they just couldn’t afford to be.

           

            As already explained in the previous pages concerning molecular inertia and the jerking of the combined molecules as a result of the movements of the right and the left legs, our bodies will, despite their flexibility, never be able to return to their original position up to a degree of precision of Angstrom. It is here where molecular inertia works to shape the bodies of mobile living creatures such that they become bilaterally symmetrical.

 

            If it is estimated that with only one movement a day the body parts may shift to a few Armstrong away from its original position, one can imagine how large the shift could be in a year’s movement.

Please note that the discussions here are confined to only matters concerning conditions that trigger the formation of the symmetrical bodies of forward-moving living creatures. The ability or the habit to move sideways and backwards found in some animals is in fact one that they acquire only after the bilaterally symmetrical form has developed.

           

            In the world of animals, there are also animals that are radially-symmetrical. This type of symmetry is especially suitable for sessile animals such as the sea anemone, floating animals such as jellyfish, and slow moving organisms such as sea stars. The jellyfish could serve as an interesting example: The fact that it moves upwards most of the time explains why its body is radially symmetrical.

What is different about these animals is that they are almost immobile, which consequently could possibly serve to support the claim that animals and human beings have bilaterally symmetrical shapes only because they are forward-moving creatures and that it is this forward movement of theirs that have caused them to become bilaterally symmetrical.

 

            Thus, as exemplified by the glass ball containing a variety of seeds, and also by the pile of sand on the pad being dropped in a forward movement, it can therefore be concluded that the symmetrical shape of a living creature is a result of its forward movement.

 

Obviously, the molecular inertia has an extremely large share to contribute to the formation of the shapes of all living creatures in general, and of mobile animals in particular.

 

            Because this is something that concerns more about the internal factors of living creatures, its further development could have something to do with Homeobox in Gene, the one related with Hox gene.

This is a possibility that scientists are expected to re-examine.

 

Certainly all these changes must have been passed on to the descendants. Otherwise every explanation concerning molecular movements that have enabled the body to take a bilaterally symmetrical shape would simply be a waste and irrelevant to the development of evolution.

 

If someone should say that the bilaterally symmetrical shapes have occurred only for the benefit of living creatures, individually, in sustaining their life process, he too may not be wrong in so saying. See continuation of this article on Evolution developing from the Resultant.

 

Nevertheless, whatever there is in the body of a living creature, all this is absolutely inseparable from the prevailing natural laws concerning bodily molecules as they are affected by the earth’s gravity, and by mass inertia; or as they are  influenced by their continuous movement in the same particular direction the whole of their life, and by the limitations in their elasticity.

 

All these are, however, only some sort of a response of the group of molecules inside the body of a living creature to external influences in its effort to sustain its life process.

 

Conclusion

            Those who believe that evolution does occur must certainly believe that before living creatures have such forms as they do today, they must, at the beginning, have been very simple in form. Certainly living creatures must have been in a very simple form before they have their bilaterally symmetrical forms as they do today. In the process of leading to such a change, it has been the laws of nature that have been playing an extremely dominant role.

            For this reason, it can be definitely stated here that the bilaterally symmetrical shapes that human beings and all other living creatures have are all ones that they have acquired from the prevailing laws of nature, which, among others, include their forward movement, the earth’s gravity, mass inertia, and limitations in elasticity.

            If one should reject the idea that the bilaterally symmetrical shape has been caused by the laws of nature as illustrated above, does one have any other ideas that can serve to explain the causes of man’s and animal’s having such shapes as they do today?

 

 

Evolution developing from the Resultant of Vectors

 

When an entity exists in the universe, it will inevitably be under the influence of conditions from both inside and outside its body.

 

In unicellulars, the influence of conditions from inside their bodies will result in a combination of all the characteristics of molecules, both as individuals and as a group (as if they were in one cell); later, with their characteristics now combined, they will face the external influences.


In multicellulars, however, the cells will, either individually or as a group (appearing in the form of either an animal or a man), jointly face the external influences. In their interaction with external influences, they will then have to undergo various processes of adaptation, as there still remains a life process that they, as living creatures, have to endeavor to preserve.

 

Illustration 1 is a portrayal of a molecule supposedly to be existing in nature, exposed to external conditions. Certainly the way it responds to the external influences is different from that of its formative atoms.

 

Similarly, in illustration 2 a group of molecules is shown to unite themselves to form a single cell, e.g. in their attempt to simultaneously respond to the external influences, thereby representing a combination of Vectors and producing a Resultant when they undertake to respond to the external influences. In the meantime, the molecules inside respond individually.

 

Illustration 3 shows a tissue, a group of biological cells that perform a similar funtion, each having a Resultant as a product of the Vectors its molecules. But in the unit of body of a multicellular, each cell Resultant turns into a Vector in its group, thus producing a Resultant of the whole group of cells.

 

Illustration 4 depicts a plant, an animal, and a human being, which then was but a union of the various cell tissues that eventually takes shape as they do today. All Vectors of the tissues will form Resultant from that entity. It is this that has made living creatures able to move or that has made their life process, representative of the combination of those movements that originally occurred in the molecules. That is why all natural characteristics of the whole entity, either as individuals or as a group, will still be evident here. This results in the development of characteristics that are adaptive to their environment, thereby producing body shapes and bodily material that are effective and efficient for the fulfillment of their life needs.

 

If it is true the elongation of the giraffe’s neck was caused by such external influences that had caused the animal to be moved to fulfill its heart’s desire, and if it is equally true that it was this very issue that had influenced its evolutionary journey, this is precisely the explanation we need.

Example: The giraffe, which feeds on leaves, tried to elongate its neck to such an extent that the cells or molecules inside them shift. Because of their flexibility and due to the earth’s gravity, these molecules should, in fact, have been able to get back to their position.

 

However, because such elongation of the neck occurred continuously and involved considerable force, particularly when trying to reach those leaves high up on tall trees, the molecules had never been able to get perfectly back to their original position, no matter how flexible they were and how much they tried.

 

The lack in their effort to get back to their original position could have been up to only one Angstrom behind, yet after millions of years of repetition such elongation my bring about extraordinary consequences. Certainly this happened not only to the neck but also to all other parts of the body, including the legs.

 

The giraffe, which when it first appeared in this world, was just a short creature (see illustration) has, after so many years of evolution, turned into a tall creature. Such a thing also occurred to the trunk or proboscis of insects, birds or other animals attempting to elongate the fore part of their heads in their effort to get what they wanted.

 

Another example are the toes of a horse. Though its ancestors were originally five-toed animals living around forest streams, environmental and climatic changes had, however, caused the five toes to evolve into a single toe. This had enabled it to flee faster from its predator—when trying to gallop faster, the horse would get all its five fingers united close together so that they would be able to gain extra energy.

 

Such Resultant had caused the molecules to be attracted and united to each other, thus forming a union among them.(see illustration 2, 3, 4.). This event certainly did not occur within only a period of one generation, yet that slight change was indeed passed on to the descendants, which then added some more changes, though also slight, and this goes on and on such that eventually what took place was an evolution. Here we simply refer to it as “the evolution of the Resultant”. i.e. an evolution that has developed from the Resultant as the outcome of the execution of the various collective will” of the various factors inside the body of living creatures.

 

In human beings and animals that have brains, this could be said to be an Evolution resulting from the work of the brain when running its life process. The result of such evolution is more visible in the shape of the body itself and in that part of the body’s surface that is directly exposed to external influences.

 

It is necessary to note down here that all the explanations above have nothing to do with the various theories proposed by earlier scientists, e.g. Lamarch. Whatever is described here is purely one that is based on such consideration as that it was the presence of the Resultant of the various Vectors inside the body of a living creature that had, in fact, served to trigger this evolutionary change.

 

Certainly the three factors were by no means independent of each other; rather, they worked shoulder to shoulder. That’s why combinations or mutual attractions between these factors are believed to have been working on those living creatures. The tail of an animal was, besides being an outcome of the molecular inertia of the tail-growing molecules, concurrently a result of the animal’s effort to take advantage of it in its effort to keep its body in balance—though admittedly this may not have held true of all tails of all animals.

In other words, it could be said that these movements of molecules within the body of a living creature, the sizes of which were in measurements of Angstrom, are a sheer philosophical representation of the occurrence of evolution.

 

Molecular movements caused by the Resultant Vector.

 

Unlike molecular inertia, which had caused a change in the body of living creatures during their evolutionary journey, here “the execution of the will” as the Resultant of a living creature had led to something different.

 

In illustration 1, the spherical ball is envisioned to be a molecule, the movement of which is triggered by the execution of the will of a living creature, particularly an animal, in its attempt to get what it desires. The iron ball could be analogized to a molecule inside the cell, or to cells inside the body of an animal, which in this case is supposedly to be present in the neck of a giraffe.

 

Let’s here take a giraffe as an example: the giraffe which is so much tempted by the fresh leaves of a tree, will stretch its head, to as maximal a degree as possible, in order to reach the leaves that it so much desires.(illustration 2).

The molecules at its neck can be analogized to the spherical ball at “b”, which in the illustration is evidently being pushed, to the farthest possible point, towards the position of “a” so that it will be able to get what its heart desires. As soon as it succeeds in getting the leaves, it begins to relax its neck to its original position. The question now is, “Will it be possible for all of its molecules to really return to their original position?” The answer is “no!”. The molecules will be able to return to a position that is only almost their original position (not exactly where they originally were), only if the giraffe does not let its neck remain stretched on and on.

In this way, with the help of the earth’s gravity, the molecules at the neck can get back to their “original position”. However, if the giraffe lets its neck remain stretched continuously, the molecules will find themselves positioned as shown in illustration 3, such that even with a space of only one Angstrom apart per day during its evolutionary journey, the resulting giraffe will be one with a very long neck. This is a result of its descendants’ inheriting the “x” space apart, even if this can be only as minute as one Angstrom. Certainly it is difficult for us to see such a space even after 100,000 generations later.

The explanations for Illustration 5 are somewhat similar to those concerning the elongation of the tail of an animal.

            The neck of the giraffe which originally is in a position as shown by A, later takes a position as depicted by B, i.e. at the time when the giraffe elongates its neck to reach the fruit.

Consequently there occur spaces between these molecules, though at irregular intervals. As soon as the animal stops its forward movement, these molecules return to their original position, though not quite precisely at their original spots.

           

            In the illustration, the row of molecules, which originally resembles that as shown in 5A, becomes like what is shown in B as a result of the giraffe’s stretching its neck and then relaxing it again.

The row of molecules tries to resume its 5A position but the best it could achieve is a position as shown in 5C, only because of the limitedness of its flexibility. There thus occurs a discrepancy in length between the row of molecules in 5A and that in 5C, though by only 1 Angstrom. Later, as soon as its condition becomes stable, 5C becomes the new 5A, which is longer by one Angstrom that the original 5A. Such elongation occurs continuously and repeatedly, is passed on to its descendants, and will become obvious only after hundreds of thousands of generations have passed.

 

Please keep in mind that the above calculation is based on the assumption that such elongation occurs only once a day at a rate of only 1 Angstrom. Now, what if it is assumed that 100 Angstrom of such elongation occurs in a day. Needless to say, the evolutionary process is accelerated. 

 

Let’s go back to the calculations.

 

Now, if it is supposed that at each day the “x” is only 1 Angstrom, just imagine how significant the figure could be after millions of years of evolution. As 1 mm is equal to 10,000,000 Angstrom, a shift of just 1 Angstrom a day can result in x reaching 365 Angstrom a year. As such, after 100,000,000 years of evolution, the x may reach 36,500,000,000 Angstrom, which is equal to 3.650 mm or 3.65 meters.

 

As already mentioned above, even after 100,000 generations have passed, we have still found it hard to perceive these changes. Why is it so? If we are to stick to the above calculations, i.e. in a period of 1 year, the giraffe’s neck elongates by 365 Angstrom, we could perhaps only imagine how many new generations would have to pass by before we could see an elongation of even only 2 cm of the giraffe’s neck. If we assume that the average life expectancy of a giraffe is 20 years and that 5 years is age at which the animal is mature enough to mate, we can conclude that it will take 100,000 x 5 years or 500,000 years for us to see a two-centimeter elongation of its neck. A change of 365 Angstrom a year is equal to a change of 182,500,000 Angstrom in 500,000 years. As 1 mm is equal to 10,000,000 Angstrom, then a change of 182,500,000 Angstrom is equivalent to an elongation of the giraffe’s neck by 18.25 mm or approximately 2 cm. Of course, what this implies is that even to observe a change of only 2 cm is extremely difficult. If it is rightly assumed that the shift that occurred in a day was 100 Angstrom, it can then be inferred that it must have taken only 1000 generation or only 5000 years to achieve a change of almost 2 cm. By implication then, it must have taken the giraffe 500,000 years to get its neck elongated to two meters as it is today.

 

Do keep in mind that this is but a rough calculation.

 

Another example of a change caused by the Resultant.

What about horse toe evolution?

Such Resultant had caused the molecules to be attracted and united to each other, thus forming a union among them. (See illustration).

 

Notes on the illustration:

A illustrates the leg of the five-toed horse of those days. As the horse was then often chased by predators, it naturally had to work out ways to heighten its speed. This it did by forever getting all its five toes to form one strong grip such that the molecules of the toes eventually became one as shown in illustration B. The change, which was one that was gradual and in measurements of Angstrom, would later be passed on to its descendants such that after millions of years the toes will look like what is shown in C, which is exactly what today’s horse hoof looks like.

 

            Because this is something that concerns more about the internal factors of living creatures, its further development could have something to do with Homeobox in Gene, the one related with Hox gene.

This is a possibility that scientists are expected to re-examine.

 

Changes of forms, e.g. elongation, shortening, and whatever changes they may be, for as long as they are caused by the Resultant holds true for all living creatures, without exception.

 

Conclusion

            Those who believe that evolution does occur must certainly believe that before living creatures have such forms as they do today, they must, at the beginning, have been very simple in form. They must certainly believe that before an animal can have a neck as long as they do now, such elongation took place phase by phase. Short at its beginning, the neck then grew longer little by little until it looks like what it does today. In such a process of elongation, it is the laws of nature that have been playing an extremely dominant role.

            As this concerns the neck of a multicellular animal, then such elongation, if it occurs to the cell of the neck, must necessarily have been passed on to the future generation. If as a result of the elongation more space was available, thereby providing the opportunity for the cell to divide to the limit of its maximal growth, then the animal must necessarily have had the ability to pass on such a condition to its descendants.

Thus, there can be no argument that in general the outer parts of living creatures directly exposed to external conditions did indeed perform such adaptation as driven by the execution of their collective will of all their cells, here referred to as their Resultant, as a means to fulfill and preserve their collective life process.

            This is evident in their attempts to elongate their necks, to unify their fingers, to grow claws, fangs, thorns at certain parts of their bodies, to adapt the color of their bodies to the environment, to change their shapes, etc. etc. And what have in fact been the cause of all these are the Resultant of the Vectors.

Should you disapprove of the ideas presented here, do you have any other ideas concerning what is it that has caused living creatures to have all their bodily facilities during evolution?

 

Note!

 

What is being discussed here is but a “fragment” of the total process of evolutionary change.

It is our common knowledge that evolutionary changes are invariably influenced by a number of  conditions, which may also cause  the changes to appear as though they have been taking a “reversed course”, such as the shortening of the tail or the shrinking of the body, as is the case in the dragonfly, etc.

In fact, these changes may also appear as though they have been taking a “turn”, whereby a creature from one species may turn itself into one of another species. Examples of this can be seen in the change of a species from one that can fly in the air to one that is flightless and lives only on land; or from a slithering animal into a reptile or the other way round; or from a sea animal into a land animal or the other way round.

Nevertheless, in “any fragment of an evolutionary event”, molecular events inevitably take place inside the body of living creatures, during the process of change, as elaborated in the articles.

 

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